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  • 正在加載中...
  • 焦油

    焦油又稱煤焦油、煤膏、煤餾油、煤焦油溶液。是煤焦化過程中得到的一種黑色或黑褐色粘稠狀液體,比重大于水,具有一定溶性和特殊的臭味,可燃并有腐蝕性,煤焦油是煉焦工業煤熱解生成的粗煤氣中的產物之一,其產量約占裝爐煤的3%~4%在常溫常壓下其產品呈黑色粘稠液狀。焦油是煤化學工業的主要原料,其成分達上萬種,主要含有苯、甲苯、二甲苯、萘、蒽等芳烴,以及芳香族含氧化合物(如苯酚等酚類化合物),含氮、含硫的雜環化合物等多種有機物,可采用分餾的方法把煤焦油分割成不同沸點范圍的餾分。煤焦油是生產塑料、合成纖維、染料、橡膠、醫藥、耐高溫材料等的重要原料,可以用來合成殺蟲劑、糖精、染料、藥品、炸藥等多種工業品。

    編輯摘要

    基本信息 編輯信息模塊

    中文名稱: 焦油 外文名: Coal tar
    別名: 煤焦油,煤膏 化學式: 多環芳烴、 氮、氧、硫等混合物
    CAS號: 65996-93-2 外觀: 黑色粘稠液體,具有特殊臭味
    密度: (g/mL 25oC):1.18-1.23 沸點: 380℃
    主要危害: 可燃,并有腐蝕性 閃點: 90
    水溶性: 微溶于水 危險性符號: 7(易燃液體)
    包裝標志: 易燃液體;腐蝕品
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    目錄

    理化特性/焦油 編輯

    中文名稱:煤焦油
    焦油焦油

    英文名稱:Coal tar
    物競編號:0KAE
    CAS號:8007-45-2
    性質與穩定性
    煤焦油如果遵照規格使用和儲存則不會分解
    避免接觸氧化物
    物性數據
    1. 性狀:黑色粘稠狀液體,具有特殊臭味
    2. 密度(g/mL 25oC):1.18-1.23
    3. 溶解性(mg/mL) :溶于苯、*、二硫化碳、氯仿、乙醇、丙酮和甲醇。微溶于水
    危險性概述
    危險性類別:第3.2類 中閃點液體
    侵入途徑:吸入、經皮吸收
    健康危害:作用于皮膚,引起皮炎、痤瘡、毛囊炎、光毒性皮炎、中毒性黑皮病、疣贅及癌腫。可引起鼻中隔損傷。
    環境危害:煤焦油對環境有害。
    燃爆危險:易燃,其蒸氣與空氣混合,能形成爆炸性混合物。

    產生/焦油 編輯

    焦油是煤炭在焦化過程中產

    焦油焦油
    生的。其產量約占裝爐的3%~4%。在常溫常壓下其產品呈黑色粘稠液狀,密度通常在0.95-1.10g/cm3 之間,閃點100℃,具有特殊臭味。

    焦油的各組分性質有差別,但性質相近組分較多,需要先采用蒸餾方法切取各種餾分,使酚、萘、蒽等欲提取的單組分產品濃縮集中到相應餾分中去,再進一步利用物理和化學的方法進行分離:

    170℃前的餾分為輕油;170~210℃的餾分主要為酚油;210~230℃的餾分主要為萘油;230~300℃的餾分主要為洗油;280~360℃的餾分主要為一蒽油;280~360℃的餾分為一蒽油;二蒽油餾分初餾點為310℃,餾出50%時為400℃。

    用途/焦油 編輯

    煤焦油含有上萬種成分,其中很多有機物是生產塑料、合成纖維、染料、橡膠、醫藥、耐高溫材料等的重要原料,因此煤焦化工業以其不可替代性在21世紀煤化工中占有重要位置。

    分類/焦油 編輯

    煤焦油分為高溫煤焦油和低溫煤焦油

    高溫干餾(即焦化)得到的焦油稱高溫煤焦油,低溫干餾得到的焦油稱低溫煤焦油。兩者的組成和性質不同,加工利用方法也各異。

    煙焦油/焦油 編輯

    (圖)焦油焦油

    吸煙者使用的煙嘴內積存的一層棕色油膩物,即煙焦油,俗稱煙油。它是有機質在缺氧條件下,不完全燃燒的產物。是眾多烴類及烴的氧化物、硫化物及氮化物的極其復雜的混合物,其中包括苯并芘、鎘、砷、β萘、胺、亞硝胺以及放射性同位素等,多種致癌物質苯酚類富馬酸等促癌物質,雖其量極微,但具有經常、反復、長期的積累作用。實驗證明:一支紙煙的煙氣即足以使一片直徑3厘米的瀘膜完全變黑,瀘膜上的顆粒物質足以使艾姆氏移碼型菌株TA98引起顯著“回變”,如果在紙煙煙霧彌漫的公共場所采集數十升空氣量,其中的顆粒物質可以引起同樣“回變”的結果和致癌的危險。吸煙20年后,年齡45歲的人,要比不吸煙的人群患肺癌者高出10倍以上。

    吸煙過程中生成的煙焦油,約為原煙草重量的1‰~6‰,煙焦油的產量與吸煙的頻率有一定的關系。單位時間內吸的次數越多,焦油的生成量就越多。每分鐘吸3口煙生成的焦油量幾乎比每分鐘吸1口煙多1倍。焦油的生成量也與紙煙長度有關,這是可以想象到的,因為煙草點燃處,生成的煙焦油煙霧,通過紙煙未燃燒部位時,其中一部分被煙草所吸附。當點燃處越來越接近末端時,生成的焦油幾乎大部分都進入到吸煙者呼吸道中,一支卷煙的前半截與后半截生成的焦油量之比約為1∶1.4,雪茄煙、斗煙和水煙的焦油生成量都比紙煙少。

    吸煙過程中生成的煙焦油,隨煙流進入吸煙者的呼吸道,被呼吸道吸收的量與吸煙習慣有極密切關系。在一次深吸煙中(猛吸一口),約有90%以上的氣溶膠微粒被帶到肺中;如在吸煙后屏氣5秒中,可有82%的微粒被滯留在肺中;屏氣30秒鐘,滯留率可高達93%。

    煙草本身只含有微量的多環芳烴,而焦油中的大量多環芳烴,絕大部分是在吸煙過程中生成的。它的生成、富集、增值量與煙的局部點燃溫度有密切關系,在吸煙時,紙煙點燃局部溫度可達600—900℃,在吸煙的當時,熾紅部位溫度可達980—1050℃,在兩次吸煙之間的間歇期,溫度約下降100—150℃。在吸煙過程中,除了紙煙的外層部分外,基本上都是供氧不足條件下燃燒的,不僅產生大量的一氧化碳,而且隨著焦化溫度的升高,生成多環芳烴的種類增多,如苯、萘、芘、酚等致癌物,多在700—900℃生成,而苯酚類和富馬酸等促癌物,則在500—700℃低溫度條件下生成。因此,煙焦油中多環芳烴的含量,無論在種類和數量上都比煙草本身的含量要多得多。

    危害/焦油 編輯

    焦油中的致癌物質和促

    煙肺與健康的肺煙肺與健康的肺
    癌物質,能直接刺激氣管、支氣管粘膜,使其分泌物增多、纖毛運動受抑制,造成氣管支氣管炎癥;焦油被吸入肺后,產生酵素,使泡壁受損,失去彈性,膨脹、破裂,形成肺氣腫;焦油粘附在咽、喉、氣管,支氣管粘膜表面,積存過多、時間過久可誘發細胞異常增生,形成癌癥。美國癌癥協會指出:每天吸煙少于10支的吸煙者患肺癌的機會是不吸煙者的5倍,若每天吸煙多于2包,則是20倍。全世界每年死于肺癌者高達100萬人,其中90%是由吸煙直接引起的。

    中國江蘇省啟東縣農民的吸煙率為70.32%。70年代男性肺癌發病率為21.64/10萬,到80年代上升到38.95/10萬,增加近80%。肺癌發病年增長率為5.88%。由此進一步看出,肺癌發生同吸煙的密切關系。

    據調查喉癌發病近年來有明顯增多。喉癌患者 98%都有吸煙史。喉癌好發于男性,男女之比全國平均為10∶1。吸煙患喉癌的危險性比不吸煙者大18倍。

    焦油的認識/焦油 編輯

    “焦油”一詞經常被用于吸

    焦油的認識焦油的認識
    煙與健康的主題上,但有的人不一定真正理解它的含義,大多數化學家和研究人員都是依據聯邦貿易會委員會(FTC)和煙草科學研究合作中心(CORESTA)提出的方法,把“焦油”定義為:可以模擬吸煙者實際吸煙情況的吸煙機在抽吸卷煙過程中所產生的、在劍橋濾片上聚集的主流煙氣的總粒相物(TPM)。這就是所謂的FTC法焦油,它是在除去水分后以“毫克/支”為單位表示的。有時還除去煙堿,稱為無煙堿焦油量

    但大部分評吸家和吸煙者都把“焦油”理解為,以卷煙主流煙氣中總粒相物的形式表現出來的“實際焦油”。它在很大程度上決定著“焦油”帶來的感官特性和心理效應。

    很明顯,這兩種定義有著本質上的差異。FTC法焦油是把煙氣冷凝物溶在溶液或基質中,再通過對煙氣冷凝物的化學分析來衡量的。而“實際焦油”是煙氣氣溶膠間斷相中多種物質的聚合物。

    卷煙煙氣中,尤其是主流煙氣的總粒相物中含有一些有害物質,這些物質具有致癌性、輔致癌性、拮抗性和其它一些對人體健康不利的影響。這一結論是通過對FTC法焦油進行的全面的化學分析以及后來利用動物所做的生理實驗得出的。但是需要強調的是這些有害成分都是在煙氣冷凝物的基質上被發現的。然而,現在人們都認為它們也存在于“實際焦油”中。

    由于卷煙煙氣本身含有有害物質,世界上就不會有安全卷煙這類產品。幾乎所有的有害物質都在煙氣總粒相物(焦油)中,因此人們認為這些物質的減少就能使卷煙的危害性降低。

    誤區/焦油 編輯

    專家認為,低焦油現在已

    煤焦油清洗劑煤焦油清洗劑
    經成為了某些卷煙企業的宣傳手段,“它背后的意思是,這種煙是低害或者無害的,消費者可以放心選用。”

    而實際上,焦油對于人體的危害是非常恐怖的。據介紹,焦油是卷煙中有機物質在缺氧條件下不完全燃燒產生的,焦油是多種烴類及烴的氧化物、硫化物和氮化物的復雜混合物。煙氣焦油中99.4%的物質是有害的,0.2%是致癌的引發劑,0.4%是癌的協同劑。目前認為煙氣中的焦油是最嚴重的有害物,這就是為什么香煙盒都標出焦油含量的緣故。焦油中多環芳烴的含量最多,且都具有強烈的致癌作用,如苯并芘二苯吡二苯蒽,這些物質進入人體后,可誘導人體組織中的芳烴羥化酶,這種酶能把多環芳烴代謝為可以與DNA分子發生共價結合的致癌物。專家們估計,每日吸30支煙,相當于每年300次X射線胸透的射線量。

    2012年4月,國家煙草專賣局下發通知,對卷煙盒標焦油最高限量進行調整。通知規定:自2013年1月1日起生產的盒標焦油量在11毫克/支以上的卷煙產品不得在境內市場銷售,自2013年1月1日起盒標焦油量在11毫克/支以上的卷煙產品不得進口。通知同時強調,各卷煙工業企業要提前做好調整卷煙盒標焦油量標注的換版工作,在卷煙產品質量監督檢查中,2013年1月1日以后生產的盒標焦油量高于11毫克/支的卷煙,將被判定為不合格產品[1]

    注意事項/焦油 編輯

    蒸餾注意事項

    1、蒸餾釜旁的地板和平臺,應用耐熱材料制作,并應坡向燃燒室對面。

    焦油萘蒸餾車焦油萘蒸餾車

    2、蒸餾釜的排瀝青管,應與燃燒室背向布置。

    3、管式爐二段泵出口,應設壓力表和壓力極限報警信號裝置。焦油二段泵出口壓力不得超過1.6×106Pa。

    4、焦油蒸餾應設事故放空槽,并經常保持空槽狀態。

    5、各塔塔壓不得超過6×10︿4Pa。

    6、洗滌廠房、泵房和冷凝室的地板、墻裙,以及蒸餾廠房地板,宜砌瓷磚或采取其他防腐措施。

    操作處置與儲存注意事項

    操作注意事項:密閉操作,全面通風。操作人員必須經過專門培訓,嚴格遵守操作規程。建議操作人員佩戴自吸過濾式防毒面具(全面罩),穿膠布防毒衣,戴橡膠耐油手套。遠離火種、熱源,工作場所嚴禁吸煙。使用防爆型的通風系統和設備。防止蒸氣泄漏到工作場所空氣中。避免與氧化劑接觸。搬運時要輕裝輕卸,防止包裝及容器損壞。配備相應品種和數量的消防器材及泄漏應急處理設備。倒空的容器可能殘留有害物。

    儲存注意事項:儲存于陰涼、通風的庫房。庫溫不宜超過37℃,遠離火種、熱源。應與氧化劑分開存放,切忌混儲。采用防爆型照明、通風設施。禁止使用易產生火花的機械設備和工具。儲區應備有泄漏應急處理設備和合適的收容材料。

    廢棄處置/焦油 編輯

    廢棄物性質:危險廢物 廢棄
    廢棄處置方法:用焚燒法處置。
    廢棄注意事項:處置前應參閱國家和地方有關法規。

    運輸/焦油 編輯

    危險貨物編號:32192

    800平方米的焦油池及周邊800平方米的焦油池及周邊

    UN編號:1136
    包裝類別:Ⅲ類包裝
    包裝標志:易燃液體;腐蝕品
    包裝方法:小開口鋼桶;薄鋼板桶或鍍錫薄鋼板桶(罐)外花格箱。
    運輸注意事項:本品鐵路運輸時限使用鋼制企業自備罐車裝運,裝運前需報有關部門批準。也鐵路運輸時,鋼桶包裝的可用敞車運輸。鐵路運輸時應嚴格按照鐵道部《危險貨物運輸規則》中的危險貨物配裝表進行配裝。運輸時運輸車輛應配備相應品種和數量的消防器材及泄漏應急處理設備。夏季最好早晚運輸。運輸時所用的槽(罐)車應有接地鏈,槽內可設孔隔板以減少震蕩產生靜電。煤焦油嚴禁與氧化劑、食用化學品、等混裝混運。運輸途中應防曝曬、雨淋,防高溫。中途停留時應遠離火種、熱源、高溫區。裝運該物品的車輛排氣管必須配備阻火裝置,禁止使用易產生火花的機械設備和工具裝卸。公路運輸時要按規定路線行駛,勿在居民區和人口稠密區停留。鐵路運輸時要禁止溜放。嚴禁用木船、水泥船散裝運輸。

    法規信息/焦油 編輯

    下列法律法規和標準,對煤焦油的安全使用、儲存、運輸、裝卸、分類和標志等方面均作了相應的規定:
    中華人民共和國安全生產法(2002年6月29日第九界全國人大常委會第二十八次會議通過);  中華人民共和國職業病防治法(2001年10月27日第九界全國人大常委會第二十四次會議通過);  中華人民共和國環境保護法(1989年12月26日第七屆全國人大常委會第十一次會議通過);  危險化學品安全管理條例(2002年1月9日國務院第52次常務會議通過);  安全生產許可證條例(2004年1月7日國務院第34次常務會議通過);  常用危險化學品的分類及標志(GB 13690-92);  工作場所有害因素職業接觸限值(GBZ 2-2002);  危險化學品名錄。[2]

    相關文獻

    添加視頻 | 添加圖冊相關影像

    參考資料
    [1]^引用日期:2012-04-27
    [2]^引用日期:2015-07-25
    擴展閱讀
    1放心醫苑網:煙焦油 2009-3-12
    2西安晚報網:低焦油不等于低危害 2008年5月30日
    3蒸餾注意事項

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